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Per-channel energy normalization: Why and how

Journal paper
Vincent Lostanlen, Justin Salamon, Mark Cartwright, Brian McFee, Andrew Farnsworth, Steve Kelling, Juan Pablo Bello
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 39-43, 2019
Publication year: 2019

In the context of automatic speech recognition and acoustic event detection, an adaptive procedure named per-channel energy normalization (PCEN) has recently shown to outperform the pointwise logarithm of mel-frequency spectrogram (logmelspec) as an acoustic frontend. This letter investigates the adequacy of PCEN for spectrogram-based pattern recognition in far-field noisy recordings, both from theoretical and practical standpoints. First, we apply PCEN on various datasets of natural acoustic environments and find empirically that it Gaussianizes distributions of magnitudes while decorrelating frequency bands. Second, we describe the asymptotic regimes of each component in PCEN: temporal integration, gain control, and dynamic range compression. Third, we give practical advice for adapting PCEN parameters to the temporal properties of the noise to be mitigated, the signal to be enhanced, and the choice of time-frequency representation. As it converts a large class of real-world soundscapes into additive white Gaussian noise, PCEN is a computationally efficient frontend for robust detection and classification of acoustic events in heterogeneous environments.

Joint time–frequency scattering

Journal paper
Joakim Andén, Vincent Lostanlen, Stéphane Mallat
IEEE Transactions in Signal Processing, Volume 67, Issue 14, Pages 3704–3718
Publication year: 2019

In time series classification and regression, signals are typically mapped into some intermediate representation used for constructing models. Since the underlying task is often insensitive to time shifts, these representations are required to be time-shift invariant. We introduce the joint time-frequency scattering transform, a time-shift invariant representation that characterizes the multiscale energy distribution of a signal in time and frequency. It is computed through wavelet convolutions and modulus non-linearities and may, therefore, be implemented as a deep convolutional neural network whose filters are not learned but calculated from wavelets. We consider the progression from mel-spectrograms to time scattering and joint time-frequency scattering transforms, illustrating the relationship between increased discriminability and refinements of convolutional network architectures. The suitability of the joint time-frequency scattering transform for time-shift invariant characterization of time series is demonstrated through applications to chirp signals and audio synthesis experiments. The proposed transform also obtains state-of-the-art results on several audio classification tasks, outperforming time scattering transforms and achieving accuracies comparable to those of fully learned networks.

Hybrid scattering-LSTM networks for automated detection of sleep arousals

Journal paper
Philip A. Warrick, Vincent Lostanlen, Masun Nabhan Homsi
Physiological Measurement, Volume 40, Number 7
Publication year: 2019

Early detection of sleep arousal in polysomnographic (PSG) signals is crucial for monitoring or diagnosing sleep disorders and reducing the risk of further complications, including heart disease and blood pressure fluctuations. Approach: In this paper, we present a new automatic detector of non-apnea arousal regions in multichannel PSG recordings. This detector cascades four different modules: a second-order scattering transform (ST) with Morlet wavelets; depthwise-separable convolutional layers; bidirectional long short-term memory (BiLSTM) layers; and dense layers. While the first two are shared across all channels, the latter two operate in a multichannel formulation. Following a deep learning paradigm, the whole architecture is trained in an end-to-end fashion in order to optimize two objectives: the detection of arousal onset and offset, and the classification of the type of arousal. Main results and Significance: The novelty of the approach is three-fold: it is the first use of a hybrid ST-BiLSTM network with biomedical signals; it captures frequency information lower (0.1 Hz) than the detection sampling rate (0.5 Hz); and it requires no explicit mechanism to overcome class imbalance in the data. In the follow-up phase of the 2018 PhysioNet/CinC Challenge the proposed architecture achieved a state-of-the-art area under the precision-recall curve (AUPRC) of 0.50 on the hidden test data, tied for the second-highest official result overall.

Fourier and the science of today

Fourier at the heart of computer music: From harmonic sounds to texture

Journal paper
Vincent Lostanlen, Joakim Andén, Mathieu Lagrange
Comptes Rendus Physique, volume 20, issue 5, pp. 461-473
Publication year: 2019

Beyond the scope of thermal conduction, Joseph Fourier’s treatise on the Analytical Theory of Heat (1822) profoundly altered our understanding of acoustic waves. It posits that any function of unit period can be decomposed into a sum of sinusoids, whose respective contributions represent some essential property of the underlying periodic phenomenon. In acoustics, such a decomposition reveals the resonant modes of a freely vibrating string. The introduction of Fourier series thus opened new research avenues on the modeling of musical timbre—a topic that was to become of crucial importance in the 1960s with the advent of computer-generated sounds. This article proposes to revisit the scientific legacy of Joseph Fourier through the lens of computer music research. We first discuss how the Fourier series marked a paradigm shift in our understanding of acoustics, supplanting the theory of consonance of harmonics in the Pythagorean monochord. Then, we highlight the utility of Fourier’s paradigm via three practical problems in analysis–synthesis: the imitation of musical instruments, frequency transposition, and the generation of audio textures. Interestingly, each of these problems involves a different perspective on time–frequency duality, and stimulates a multidisciplinary interplay between research and creation that is still ongoing.